How much water do we need?

Water is now so cool that you can see celebrities carrying around gallons of water as the new accessory. The claims made on social media for excess water consumption include improved memory, mental health, increased energy, and better complexion. What does it mean to stay hydrated? Dehydration to most people means loss of fluids. Does the simple act of drinking water make people healthier? Hydration is really the balance of electrolytes in the body like sodium and water. We have all heard that the magic number is eight-eight ounce glasses a day. We need to take into consideration body size, outdoor temperature, how you are breathing and sweating. Then there are certain health conditions to consider like heart disease, kidney stones, diuretic drugs. It seems that the best way to stay hydrated is to drink when you feel thirsty. Even darker urine may not necessarily mean that you are dehydrated according to exercising scientists. Is water the only drink we need to stay hydrated. According to a study of 72 men the hydrating effects of water, coffee or tea were almost identical. Water also comes from fruits, vegetables, and soups. Are sports drinks necessary? Not really, there are hormones that send signals to the kidney when there is a need for anything in the blood. So, drink when you feel like drinking and your body will inform you if it needs more.

Metabolism and Assumptions:

We have all been told that after 20 years of age your metabolism starts to slow down, and you eventually gain weight. That men have a faster metabolism then women. That women have a harder time losing weight as opposed to men especially after menopause. Now after a new publication in “Science” these assumptions seem a little misguided. Data from 6,500 people ranging from 8 days to 95 years of age, allowed researchers to divide a lifetime into 4 distinct periods of metabolism. The study involved 80 co-authors who shared data along with information from 6 labs using data from the past 40 years. Calories were measured by what is considered the “Gold Standard”. This measures the number of calories burned by tracking the amount of carbon dioxide expelled after daily activities. All factors were taken into consideration- height, weight, percentage of body fat. 1) Infancy -metabolic rate is 50% higher than adults, 2) Age 1 to 20 metabolism slows about 3% a year, 3) 20 to 60 it holds steady, 4) after 60 declines about 0.7% per year. They found no difference between men and women. Although the metabolic rate of individuals varies, the general pattern holds true for life. The results dispute the notion that there is a constant rate of expenditure per pound. Metabolic rate is shown in these studies to be dependent on age.

Endangered Condors reproduce Asexually:

Conservationists for the endangered California condors have discovered 2 instances where unfertilized eggs have successfully hatched into chicks. The findings were published in “The Journal of Heredity”. Parthenogenesis is the process in which a female animal produces an embryo that has not been fertilized. However, this is common in fish and lizards. It has been rare in birds but has occurred in turkeys, finches, and pigeons. The California condor was removed from the wild after 1982 when it was discovered that there were 23 remaining. In captivity their number has increased to 504. A concise database was established since males and females look the same and to prevent inbreeding. In 2001 and 2009 two male chicks were found to have DNA markers that did not code with any of the males. This meant that no male condor had fathered the chicks while they only genetic info from the mom. Scientists are now looking into the possibility that more birds may be giving birth by Parthenogenesis as a last-ditch effort to save their species from extinction.

3-D Printed Sneakers…

Heron Preston a streetwear designer has teamed up with Zellerfeld a technology company to produce the first 3D slip on sneaker. The sneaker is called HERON01. It has no seams, stitching, glue, not made of toxic glues or material, has no weak points, and can be fully recycled into a new shoe. The shoe itself is decorated with printed scales and textures resembling the feet of a heron bird while the sole combines the aesthetics of a claw with advanced footwear production concepts. They are easy to pull on and have a chunky sole with threading for traction. It has a prehistoric yet futuristic look and comes in a range of colors. New prototypes can be printed in hours as opposed to traditional avenues which take months. You can choose from standard sizes and use your iPhone to scan your feet at no additional cost. The program allows users to return their worn-out shoes for updated newer versions. For now, they are in the testing stage with 200 pairs being given out in order to receive feedback.