Two studies, one done at New York University and the other at John Hopkins University were conducted on the effects of psilocybin (an hallucinogenic derived from mushrooms) and the therapeutic benefits in treating cancer patients. The results were published in The Journal of Psychopharmacology. Cancer-related psychological distress afflicts about 40% of cancer patients who found traditional therapy unsuccessful. Fear of the cancer returning after being told they are either cured or in remission prevents former patients from getting on and enjoying life. Administrating psilocybin is usually accompanied by a playlist of selected music which is believed to enhance the positive effects of the drug. Experiments have shown that relief from anxiety and depression are within the next day in contrast with antidepressants which take several weeks to take effect. This is vital since these patients need help immediately. The theory is that psilocybin interrupts the circuitry of self-absorbed thinking. At present trials are underway in the U.S. and Europe to treat forms of alcoholism, tobacco addiction and PTSD in this manner.